to develop in students an understanding of the direct relationship between the special properties of nanomaterials and the energy parameters of the near-surface region of particles during the transition of a substance from the "bulk" to the "ultradispersed" state.
The ways of minimizing the total energy of the near-surface layer associated with structural, phase, and morphological transformations of nanomaterial particles are explained in simple terms.
The concepts of surface energy, entropy, and enthalpy are revealed, and the criteria for the occurrence of spontaneous and non-spontaneous processes in the system are established. The influence of the surface on the properties of carbon nanomaterials, in particular graphene and carbon nanotubes, is analyzed. As an example, an engineering assessment of the mechanical properties of carbon nanomaterials was carried out, which would allow the implementation of a space elevator project.